Ubuntu grep 命令詳解


grep 可搜索各 FILE 中的 PATTERN 及標準輸齣。

默認情況下,PATTERN 是 BRE 基本正則錶達式 (basic regular expression)。


譬如: grep -i 'hello world' menu.h main.c

 

基本語法


grep [OPTION]... PATTERN [FILE]...

 

PATTERN 參數

# 參數 EN 解釋 中文翻譯 備注
-E, --extended-regexp PATTERN is an extended regular expression (ERE)
-F, --fixed-strings PATTERN is a set of newline-separated fixed strings
-G, --basic-regexp PATTERN is a basic regular expression (BRE)
-P, --perl-regexp PATTERN is a Perl regular expression
-e, --regexp=PATTERN use PATTERN for matching
-f, --file=FILE obtain PATTERN from FILE
-i, --ignore-case ignore case distinctions
-w, --word-regexp force PATTERN to match only whole words
-x, --line-regexp force PATTERN to match only whole lines
-z, --null-data a data line ends in 0 byte, not newline

 

Miscellaneous 雜項

# 參數 EN 解釋 中文翻譯 備注
-s, --no-messages suppress error messages
-v, --invert-match select non-matching lines
-V, --version print version information and exit
--help display this help and exit 顯示幫助並退齣
--mmap deprecated no-op; evokes a warning

 

Output control 輸齣控製

# 參數 EN 解釋 中文翻譯 備注
-m, --max-count=NUM stop after NUM matches
-b, --byte-offset print the byte offset with output lines
-n, --line-number print line number with output lines
--line-buffered flush output on every line
-H, --with-filename print the file name for each match
-h, --no-filename suppress the file name prefix on output
--label=LABEL use LABEL as the standard input file name prefix
-o, --only-matching show only the part of a line matching PATTERN
-q, --quiet, --silent suppress all normal output
--binary-files=TYPE assume that binary files are TYPE; TYPE is 'binary', 'text', or 'without-match'
-a, --text equivalent to --binary-files=text
-I equivalent to --binary-files=without-match
-d, --directories=ACTION how to handle directories; ACTION is 'read', 'recurse', or 'skip'
-D, --devices=ACTION how to handle devices, FIFOs and sockets; ACTION is 'read' or 'skip'
-r, --recursive like --directories=recurse
-R, --dereference-recursive likewise, but follow all symlinks
--include=FILE_PATTERN search only files that match FILE_PATTERN
--exclude=FILE_PATTERN skip files and directories matching FILE_PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE skip files matching any file pattern from FILE
--exclude-dir=PATTERN directories that match PATTERN will be skipped.
-L, --files-without-match print only names of FILEs containing no match
-l, --files-with-matches print only names of FILEs containing matches
-c, --count print only a count of matching lines per FILE
-T, --initial-tab make tabs line up (if needed)
-Z, --null print 0 byte after FILE name

 

Context control 上下文控製

# 參數 EN 解釋 中文翻譯 備注
-B, --before-context=NUM print NUM lines of leading context
-A, --after-context=NUM print NUM lines of trailing context
-C, --context=NUM print NUM lines of output context
-NUM same as --context=NUM
--color[=WHEN], --colour[=WHEN] use markers to highlight the matching strings; WHEN is 'always', 'never', or 'auto'
-U, --binary do not strip CR characters at EOL (MSDOS/Windows)
-u, --unix-byte-offsets report offsets as if CRs were not there (MSDOS/Windows)
數字 Python IDE

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詳細用法

功能 # 命令規範 文字解釋 示例 示例解釋