Your app should run in a bundle exactly as it does when run from source. However, you may want to learn at run-time whether the app is running from source or whether it is bundled (“frozen”). You can use the following code to check “are we bundled?”:
import sys if getattr(sys, 'frozen') and hasattr(sys, '_MEIPASS'): print('running in a PyInstaller bundle') else: print('running in a normal Python process')
When a bundled app starts up, the bootloader sets the
attribute and stores the absolute path to the bundle folder in
. For a one-folder bundle, this is the path to that folder. For a one-file bundle, this is the path to the temporary folder created by the bootloader (see
When your app is running, it may need to access data files in one of the following locations:
The program has access to several variables for these uses.
When your program is not bundled, the Python variable
refers to the current path of the module it is contained in. When importing a module from a bundled script, the
bootloader will set the module’s
attribute to the correct path relative to the bundle folder.
For example, if you import
from a bundled script, then the
attribute of that module will be
. So if you have a data file at
that you added to the bundle at
, the following code will get its path (in both the non-bundled and the bundled case):
from os import path path_to_dat = path.join(path.dirname(__file__), 'file.dat')
In the bundled main script itself the above might not work, as it is unclear where it resides in the package hierarchy. So in when trying to find data files relative to the main script,
can be used. The following will get the path to a file
next to the main script if not bundled and in the bundle folder if it is bundled:
from os import path import sys bundle_dir = getattr(sys, '_MEIPASS', path.abspath(path.dirname(__file__))) path_to_dat = path.join(bundle_dir, 'other-file.dat')
When a normal Python script runs,
is the path to the program that was executed, namely, the Python interpreter. In a frozen app,
is also the path to the program that was executed, but that is not Python; it is the bootloader in either the one-file app or the executable in the one-folder app. This gives you a reliable way to locate the frozen executable the user actually launched.
The value of
is the name or relative path that was used in the user’s command. It may be a relative path or an absolute path depending on the platform and how the app was launched.
If the user launches the app by way of a symbolic link,
uses that symbolic name, while
is the actual path to the executable. Sometimes the same app is linked under different names and is expected to behave differently depending on the name that is used to launch it. For this case, you would test
On the other hand, sometimes the user is told to store the executable in the same folder as the files it will operate on, for example a music player that should be stored in the same folder as the audio files it will play. For this case, you would use
The following small program explores some of these possibilities. Save it as
. Execute it as a Python script, then bundled as a one-folder app. Then bundle it as a one-file app and launch it directly and also via a symbolic link:
#!/usr/bin/python3 import sys, os frozen = 'not' if getattr(sys, 'frozen', False): # we are running in a bundle frozen = 'ever so' bundle_dir = sys._MEIPASS else: # we are running in a normal Python environment bundle_dir = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(__file__)) print( 'we are',frozen,'frozen') print( 'bundle dir is', bundle_dir ) print( 'sys.argv is', sys.argv ) print( 'sys.executable is', sys.executable ) print( 'os.getcwd is', os.getcwd() )
This environment variable is used to discover libraries, it is the library search path - on GNU/Linux and *BSD LD_LIBRARY_PATH is used, on AIX it is LIBPATH .
If it exists, PyInstaller saves the original value to *_ORIG , then modifies the search path so that the bundled libraries are found first by the bundled code.
But if your code executes a system program, you often do not want that this system program loads your bundled libraries (that are maybe not compatible with your system program) - it rather should load the correct libraries from the system locations like it usually does.
Thus you need to restore the original path before creating the subprocess with the system program.
env = dict(os.environ) # make a copy of the environment lp_key = 'LD_LIBRARY_PATH' # for GNU/Linux and *BSD. lp_orig = env.get(lp_key + '_ORIG') if lp_orig is not None: env[lp_key] = lp_orig # restore the original, unmodified value else: # This happens when LD_LIBRARY_PATH was not set. # Remove the env var as a last resort: env.pop(lp_key, None) p = Popen(system_cmd, ..., env=env) # create the process