This sections describes details about specific features. For a full list of features please refer to the website.
Ctypes is a foreign function library for Python, that allows calling functions present in shared libraries. Those libraries are not imported as Python packages, because they are not picked up via Python imports: their path is passed to ctypes instead, which deals with the shared library directly; this caused <1.4 PyInstaller import detect machinery to miss those libraries, failing the goal to build self-contained PyInstaller executables:
from ctypes import * # This will pass undetected under PyInstaller detect machinery, # because it's not a direct import. handle = CDLL("/usr/lib/library.so") handle.function_call()
PyInstaller contains a pragmatic implementation of Ctypes dependencies: it will search for simple standard usages of ctypes and automatically track and bundle the referenced libraries. The following usages will be correctly detected:
CDLL("library.so") WinDLL("library.so") ctypes.DLL("library.so") cdll.library # Only valid under Windows - a limitation of ctypes, not PyInstaller's windll.library # Only valid under Windows - a limitation of ctypes, not PyInstaller's cdll.LoadLibrary("library.so") windll.LoadLibrary("library.so")
More in detail, the following restrictions apply:
We feel that it should be enough to cover most ctypes’ usages, with little or no modification required in your code.
does not detect a library, you can add it to your bundle by passing the respective information to
listing it in the .spec-file
. If your frozen application will be able to pick up the library at run-time can not be guaranteed as it depends on the detailed implementation.
The ctypes detection system at
is based on
. This means that you have to make sure that while performing
and running frozen, all the environment values
uses to search libraries are aligned to those when running un-frozen. Examples include using
PyInstaller tries to detect binary modules created by SWIG. This detection requires:
automatically generated by SWIG.
_). (This is a SWIG restriction already.)
Also some restrictions apply for Python 3, due to the way the SWIG wrapper is implemented:
pkg2._cmod), as one would overwrite the other.
PyInstaller can follow import statements that refer to Cython C object modules and bundle them – like for any other module implemented in C.
But – again, as for any other module implemented in C –
can not determine if the Cython C object module is importing some Python module. These will typically show up as in a traceback like this (mind the
Traceback (most recent call last): […] File "myapp\cython_module.pyx", line 3, in init myapp.cython_module ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'csv'
So if you are using a Cython C object module, which imports Python modules, you will have to list these as